I think you may well be right that that is another aspect to it. I know that my suspicions as to why this resurgence of nationalism in different parts of Britain is happening include thinking that it might be because many British people feel somewhat "under seige" from a flood of illegal immigrants coming in from poorer countries/different cultures to our own and I'm guessing the same applies in other European countries. It feels to me like one aspect of this (only one aspect - as well as the "seeking revenge by reincarnation" one) is that internal borders are being "reinforced" by parts of Britain (ie Scotland, Wales, Ireland) trying to "divide themselves off". It doesn't feel to me (though I may be wrong of course) like Ireland is being that way to such an extent as Wales and Scotland and I guess there may be an element in there of how England has helped out Irish women unable to get an abortion in Ireland for some time (I've certainly read a recent article by an Irish woman expressly thanking the English for taking these women in helping them - without judgement/without question - when they needed it and it was illegal in Ireland). So I think there are a noticeable number of Irish people grateful to the English for helping them when they needed it in this respect. I can sympathise with your experience in Catalan - particularly when you had gone there to help them and been so "positive" yourself towards them. In your position - I would certainly have expected people to be glad I was there to help them & trying to learn the language to boot and automatically translated as required for you. I can certainly understand why you felt isolated. Thankfully, for me, there are lots of English people living here in the town I'm in too (albeit a lot of whom don't understand where I'm "coming from"!) and I can get out of this particular town (by bus - and it's only once an hour during Monday-Saturday daytimes!) to a bigger town down in the next county (ie Pembrokeshire) and it's much more "English" there and this attitude doesn't seem to exist there. I also go on visits back to my home area in England when I can afford it for a few days. It is a relief when I do that I don't feel I need to "look over my shoulder" in case someone is eavesdropping and, at least mentally, criticising something perfectly innocent I've just said. Things aren't as bad as you had them - as a retired person I can't be discriminated out of getting jobs at least. I have had "Complaints" to effect of I'm not promoting the Welsh language in my voluntary work. I do get the odd incident where I'm told I "ought to learn Welsh" on the one hand or a milder one like yesterday. Yesterday being where I was helping a couple of Welsh women that had come in speaking Welsh to each other and they kept using "basic greeting/thanking" words in Welsh to me to quite an excessive extent it felt - though I was only speaking in English to them and I could see the look on the face of one of them/was feeling mentally pressured by her to come out with at least those basic words back to her and just kept a smile fixed on my face and selling her the goods she wanted in "standard helpful manner" and said nothing and pretended I hadn't noticed I was feeling pressurised by her. But that was a more minor incident - but still one that has me feeling slightly concerned in case she goes back and "puts in a Complaint" that I only spoke English to her and it goes on the "tally" and I land up getting "sacked" from this voluntary position, though I was perfectly helpful to her #sighs. I have got to the extent that I have made the basic decision to go back to England (as I can see things are currently getting worse - the nationalists seem to be feeling "stronger/more confident" currently) and trying to impose being forced to learn Welsh on a steadily increasing number of people. I'm trying to figure out ways I can afford to sell my house and buy one back in my home area though currently (as the houses there are so much more expensive). All this pressure is making me feel "low" - even though I'm so thankful I'm not a school child and my income safely comes from pensions. You've probably not heard of the "Welsh Not". I know I hadn't - until I moved here. This was where a hundred years or so ago English teachers forced Welsh schoolchildren to speak English (whether they knew it or no) and they were punished for not doing so. So - schoolchildren being forced to learn in Welsh these days in many schools here is quite obviously the exact same thing in reverse - ie an "English Not". I do wonder whether many of the people forcing this on schoolchildren were Welsh schoolchildren a few generations ago and having the "Welsh Not" done to them and are now retaliating (in this lifetime) with an "English Not" (ie they stored their resentment at this up in their heads and decided to "get their own back" if they ever had the chance - and are ignoring the fact it's not appropriate in the 21st century).